Effect of Methanol Extract and Fractions of Chrysophylum albidum Bark on Gut Morphology in bled and Plasmodium-Infected Mice
The gut stimulating effect of methanolic extract of Chrysophyllum albidum bark (MeCaB) and its’ chromatographic fractions (CFr 1, 2 and 3) was investigated in mice using two separate anaemic models.
Male Swiss Mice (19-22g) were divided into 11 groups (n=6): Group 1-normal, 2-parasitized untreated (PUn), 3-7:parasitized treated with 250mg/kg each of fractions 1,2,3 (PCFr1,2 and 3), MeCaB (1000mg/kg) and chloroquine (30mg/kg PCQ) respectively, 8- Bled treated with MeCaB, 9- MeCaB (1000mg/kg) treated alone,10-Bled alone, 11- bled treated with haematinic. In another experiment, mice (groups 2-7) were inoculated with plasmodium berghei bergehi while groups 8-11 were made anaemic by bleeding out blood via the retro-orbital plexus. Body weights and parasitaemia counts were monitored daily. Blood was collected for complete blood and parasitaemia counts by days 3 and 7 of experiment and were later sacrificed (by day 7) with the duodenal and jejunal segments of the small intestine excised from each animal for histological analysis. Data were expressed as Mean±SEM, analyzed using one-way ANOVA and p£0.05 was statistically significant
Significant increases in the body weight, complete blood count of BMeCaB, PCFr 1, PCFr 2 and MeCaB alone were observed by days 3 and 7. There were significant reductions in the parasitaemia level of the PMeCaB, PCFr 1 and 3 compared with PUn, however PCQ had no parasitemia. Mice in the Bled or parasitized models treated with MeCaB and fractions had significantly higher duodenal cryptal depths, surface area, villi height/cryptal depth ratio compared with PUn. Mice in the bled or parasitized models treated with MeCaB and fractions had significantly higher jejunal heights, cryptal depth, surface area and width compared with PUn by day 7. Significant decreases in both the duodenal and jejunal villi height/width ratio in MeCaB, PCFr1,2 and 3 of both models by day 7 compared with PUn was observed.
Observations from this study suggest that Chrysophyllum albidum and its fractions (1 and 3) promote and help maintain normal homeostatic condition which boosts growth performance via increased absorptive capacity.
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