Erythrocyte Membrane Stabilisation, Protease Activities And Antioxidant Properties of The Stem Bark Extract of Alstonia boonei (DC)

Membrane stability and proteinase effect

Authors

  • Oludele John Olanlokun University of Ibadan

Abstract

There is an increasing search for natural antioxidants because of the growing concern about the safety of the synthetic ones and their potency in stabilising biological membranes. Because of this, we investigated the membrane stabilizing effects, proteinase activities and antioxidant properties of extract and fractions of Alstonia boonei. The in vitro and in vivo antioxidant properties of Alstonia boonei, erythrocyte membrane stabilising and inhibitory effects of the extract and fractions of the plant on proteinase activity were assessed spectrophotometrically. Assessment of the antioxidant properties of extract and fractions of A. boonei showed that the plant exhibited significant antioxidant activities both in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro antioxidant assessment of the extract and fractions of Alstonia boonei, the MF had the highest significant effects on nitric oxide inhibition (95.90±9.18), reducing power (1.311±0.054), and 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging (90.00±0.010). The CF had the highest effect on percentage hydroxyl radical scavenging activity (79.72±6.84), and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (96.70±12.44). In vivo, extract and fractions of Alstonia boonei significantly altered the antioxidant status of the treated animals relative to control. The n-hexane fraction stabilized the red cell membrane in a concentration dependent manner and also significantly inhibited proteinase activity in vitro. These preventive effects may be as a result of the antioxidant properties of the extract and fractions of Alstonia boonei and the various fractions may find use either as natural antioxidants or as inhibitors of protease enzymes.

References

Abbiw D. 1990. Useful Plants of Ghana: In: West African Uses of Wild and Cultivated Plants, Intermediate Technology Publications, Royal Botanical Garden, Kew, London.
Adam-Vizi V, Seregi A. 1982. Receptor independent stimulatory effect of nor-adrenaline on Na+/K+-ATPase in rat brain homogenate. Role of lipid peroxidation. Biochemical Pharmacology 34: 2231-2236.
Adotey JPK, Adukpo GE, Boahen YO, Armah FA. 2012. A Review of the Ethno-botany and Pharmacological Importance of Alstonia boonei De Wild (Apocynaceae). ISRN Pharmacol. 2012: 587160.
Akinpelu DA, Aiyegoro OA, Okoh AI. 2010. The in vitro Antioxidant Property of Methanolic Extract of Afzelia Africana (Smith.). J. Medi Plant Res. 4(19): 2021-2027.
Amudha M, Rani S. 2016. Evaluation of In Vitro Antioxidant Potential of Cordia retusa. Indian J Pharmaceut. Sci. 78(1): 80–86.
Anosike CA, Obidoa O, Ezeanyika LUS. 2012. Membrane stabilisation as a mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of garden egg (Solanum aethiopicum) DARU-J Fac Pharm 2012; DOI: 10.1186/2008-2231-20-76.
Bao Y, Wang W, Zhou Z, Sun C. 2014. Benefits and Risks of the Hormetic Effects of Dietary Isothiocyanates on Cancer Prevention. PLoS ONE 9(12): e114764.
Bergmeyer HU, Gawehn K, Grass LM. 1974. In: Methods of Enzymatic Analysis (Bergmeyer, HU.,ed.), Academic Press, London and New York. Vol.1, pp.485-486.
Beutler E, Duron O, Kelly BM. 1963. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J Lab. Clin Med. 61:882–890.
Chebouat E, Dadamoussa B, Gharabli S, Gherraf N, Allaoui M, Cheriti A, Lahham A, Zellagui A. 2011. Assessment of antimicrobial activity of flavonoids extract from Ephedra alata Der Pharmacia Lettre, 6(3):27-30.
Claiborne L. 1985. Handbook of methods or oxygen radical research. CRC Press, London.
Flohe ́L. 1971. Glutathione peroxidase enzymology and biological aspects. Klinische Wochenschrift 49(12):669-683.
Garrat DC. 1964. The Quantitative Analysis of Drugs Japan. 3rd Edn., Chapman and Hall, Japan, pp: 456-468.
Govindappa M, Channabasava R, Sowmya DV, Meenakshi J, Shreevidya MR, Lavanya A, Gustavo S, Sadananda TS. 2011. Phytochemical Screening, Antimicrobial and in vitro Anti-inflammatory Activity of Endophytic Extracts from Loranthus sp. Pharmacog. J. 3(25): 82-90.

Habig WH, Pabst MJ, Jakoby WB. 1974. Glutathione S-transferases. The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J. Bio Chem 249(22):7130-7139. PMID: 4436300
Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC, Aruoma OI. 1987. The deoxyribose method: A simple test-tube assay for determination of rate constants for reactions of hydroxyl radicals. Anal Biochem. 165(1): 215-219.
Hossain MM, Ahamed SK, Dewan MR, Hassan MM, Istiaq A, Islam MS, Moghal MMR. 2014. In vivo antipyretic, antiemetic, in vitro membrane stabilization, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic activities of different extracts from Spilanthes paniculata leaves. Biol.Re. 2014; https://doi.org/10.1186/0717-6287-47-45.
Kehrer JP. 2000. The Haber-Weiss reaction and mechanisms of toxicity. Toxicology 149:43-50.
Kosalec I, Cvek J, Tomic S (2009) Contaminants of medicinal herbs and herbal products. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol 60(4):485-501.
Laser H, Kemp P, Miller N, Lander D, Klein R. 1975. Malaria, quinine and red cell lysis. Parasitol, 71(2): 167-181. PMID:1187180.
Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. 1951. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem. 193(1): 262-275.
Lu SC. 2009. Regulation of glutathione synthesis. Mol Asp Med. 30(1-2):42–59.
Magee PJ, Owusu-Apenten R, Mccann MJ, Gill CI, Rowland IR. 2012. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and other plant-derived protease inhibitor concentrates inhibit breast and prostate cancer cell proliferation in vitro. Nutr Cancer 64(5): 741–748.
Marinova D, Ribarova F, Atanassova M (2005) Total phenolics and total flavonoids in Bulgarian fruits and vegetables. J Univ Chem Technl Meta. 40:255 260.
Meierjohann S, Walter RD, Müller S. 2002. Glutathione synthetase from Plasmodium falciparum Biochem J 363(Pt.3): 833–838.
Dzoyem JP, Kuete V, Mcgaw LJ, Eloff JN. 2014. The 15-lipoxygenase inhibitory, antioxidant, anti-mycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of fourteen ethno-medicinally used African spices and culinary herbs. J Ethnopharmacol. 156: 1-8.
Misra HP, Fridovich I. 1972. The role of superoxide anion in the autoxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J Biol Chem. 247(10):3170-3175.
Mockenhaupt FP, Mandelkow J, Till H, Ehrhardt S, Eggelte TA, Bienzle U. 2003. Reduced prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infection and concomitant anaemia in pregnant women with heterozygous G6PD deficiency. Trop Med Int Health. 8(2):118-124.
Nebavi SM, Ebahimzadeh MA, Nebavi SF, Fazelian M, Eslami B. 2009. In vitro antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of Diospyros lotus and Pyrus biossireriana growing in Iran. Pharmacol Mag. 4:123-127.
Olajide OA, Awe SO, Makinde JM, Ekhelar AI, Olusola A, Morebise O, Okpako DT. 2000. Studies on the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of Alstonia boonei stem bark Studies on the anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties of Alstonia boonei stem bark. J Ethnopharmacol. 71:179-186.
Oliva MLV, Sampaio MU. 2009. Action of plant proteinase inhibitors on enzymes of physio-pathological importance. Anais Da Academia Brasileira De Ciencias 81(3): 615-621.
Oyaizu M. 1986. Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidative activity of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jap J Nutr. 44:307–315.
Paraiso LF, Gonçalves E, Oliveira AFM, Cunha LM, De Almeida Neto OP, Pacheco AG, Araújo KBG, Garrote-Filho MS, Neto MB, Penha-Silva N. 2017. Effects of acute and chronic exercise on the osmotic stability of erythrocyte membrane of competitive swimmers. PLoS ONE 12: e0171318.
Rotruck JT, Pope AL, Ganther HE, Swanson AB, Hafeman DG, Hoekstra WG. 1973. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 179(4073):588-590.
Ruberto G, Baratta MT, Deans SG, Dorman, HJD. 2000. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Foeniculum vulgare and Crithmummaritimum essential oils, Planta Medica 66: 687-693.
Sakat S, Juvekar AR, Gambhire MN. 2010. In vitro antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Oxalis corniculata Linn. Int J Pharm Pharmaceut Sci.. 2:146-155.
Shinde UA, Phadke AS, Nair AM, Mungantiwar AA, Dikshit VJ, Saraf VO. 1999. Membrane stabilizing activity–a possible mechanism of action for the anti-inflammatory activity of Cedrus deodara wood oil. Fitoterapia 70: 251-257.
Slinkard K, Singleton VL (1977) Total phenol analyses: Automation and Comparison with Manual Methods. Am J En Vit. 28: 49-55.
Teschke R, Melchart D, Xuan TD. 2018. Hormesis and dose-responses in herbal traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) alone are insufficient solving real clinical TCM challenges and associated herbal quality issues. Longhua Chin Med 1:3.
Totino PRR, Daniel-Ribeiro CT, Ferreira-Da-Cruz MDE. 2016. Evidencing the role of erythrocytic apoptosis in malarial anemia. Front J Cell Inf Microb. 6: 176.
Varshney R, Kale RK. 1990. Effects of calmodulin antagonists on radiation-induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes. Int J Rad Biol. 58(5): 733-743.
Yokozawa T, Chen CP, Dong E, Tanaka T, Nonaka GI, Nishioka I (1998) Study on the inhibitory effect of tannins and flavonoids against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. Biochem Pharmacol 56(2): 213–222.
Zheng W, Wang S (2001) Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds in selected herbs. J Agric Food Chem 49(11): 5165-5170.

Published

2020-02-29

Issue

Section

Nutrition/Natural Product and Drug Development