Cissampelos capensis and Pleiocarpa pycantha protect against N-nitrosodiethylamine-induced hepatotoxicity
Pleiocarpa pycantha (PP) and Cissampellos capensis(CC) showed potential phytoprotection in vitro. We then investigated this effects against N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) induced hepatiotoxicity and renal function in rat (n=5), treated as follows for 60 days: (1) Control (2) DEN, (3) DEN+PP (4) DEN+CC (5) DEN+PP+CC (6) PP, (7) CC only and group (8) PP+CC. Rats were sacrificed and organs harvested for Biochemical and histological examination. DEN-induced hepatic tumors were counted and measured, liver sections processed for histopathology. Furthermore, markers of oxidative stress, hepatotoxicity and renal function including superoxide dismutase, aspartate transaminase, and creatinine were assessed in serum, in addition to α-fetoprotein and blood glucose levels. DEN treatment resulted in weight loss; elevated serum levels of hepatic transaminases, α-fetoprotein and induction of T2-4 (tumour count) in experimental animals. Tumour incidences were reduced to T1-2, T1-2 and T1 in the presence of PP, CC and PP+CC co-treatment respectively. Histological investigation revealed increased growth in hepatic stellate cells and early fibrosis in DEN only treated group, which were partly reversed by PP and CC. Significant increase in blood glucose level was observed in DEN treated animals compared to PP and CC treated groups. In addition, DEN treated group were low in cellular antioxidant activity relative to other groups, which was elevated in the presence of PP and CC. Our findings indicated that PP and CC co-treatment alleviated DEN-induced hepatic tumorigenesis in exposed rats, reinforcing earlier in vitro findings. PP and CC phytoprotective effect maybe relevant in protecting the liver against chemical carcinogens.
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