The GCMS analysis of partially purified chloroform sub fractions of methanol extract of drymaria cordata (Linn) and their effects on mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore


  • Adeola Oluwakemi Olowofolahan University of Ibadan
  • Olubukola Temitope Oyebode, Dr Department of Biochemistry,University of Ibadan
  • Olufunso Olabode Olorunsogo, Prof. Department of Biochemistry,University of Ibadan


The plant drymaria cordata is folklorically used in the treatment of uterine fibroids. Investigating its phytoconstituents and their effects on mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT) pore is of pharmacological importance.

The aim of this study was to identify the possible phytochemical compounds present in the most  potent sub-fraction of the plant and test them on mPT pore.

The methanol extract of drymaria cordata was successively partitioned between n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol solvent using Vacuum Liquid Chromatography (VLC) technique to obtain n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions. The chloroform fraction was   partitioned into five different subfractions using VLC. The subfractions were tested for their potency in the induction of mPT pore opening. The subfraction D which was the most potent with respect to mPT pore opening was loaded on a column and eluted with n-hexane and chloroform varying the solvent systems in order of increasing polarity. The flow rate was 2.5ml/min. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) plates were used to monitor samples with similar components. Samples with similar Rf values were pooled together. For further resolution, samples which showed the same single band on the TLC plates were further subjected to purification using micro-column chromatography. The eluents were also monitored using the TLC plates. 

The partially purified samples were subjected to GC-MS analysis and certain phytochemicals including  hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid ethyl ester, hexadecanoic acid,  9-Octadecenoic acid, Oxalic acid 2-ethylhexyl isobutyl ester,  3-(p-Fluorobenzoyl)-propionic acid and Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate were identified. 

The presence of these major compounds might be responsible for the pharmacological properties ascribed to the fraction.  Also, these could give an insight into developing chemopreventive and therapeutic approaches to various diseases in human associated with dysregulated apoptosis.


Keywords: Drymaria cordata, Mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore, Gas Chromatography, Thin Layer Chromatography, Apoptosis.



Akindele, A.J. I F Ibe, and O O Adeyemi (2012) Analgesic and Antipyretic Activities of Drymaria Cordata (Linn.) Willd (Caryophyllaceae) Extract African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines 9(1):25-35 •
Baker, M. (2017). Deceptive curcumin offers cautionary tale for chemists. Nature, 541, 144–145.
Barua, C.C., Roy, J.D., Buragohain, B., Barua, A.G., Borah, P. and Lahkar, M. (2009) Anxiolytic Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract of Drymaria cordata Willd. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, 47, 969-973.
Barua, C.C., Roy, J.D., Buragohain, B., Barua, A.G., Borah, P. and Lahkar, M. (2011) Analgesic and Anti-Nociceptive Activity of Hydroethanolic Extract of Drymaria cordata Willd. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 43, 121-125
Braicu, E. I., J. Sehouli, R. Richter, K. Pietzner, C. Denkert, and C. Fotopoulou. 2011. Role of histological type on surgical outcome and survival following radical primary tumour debulking of epithelial ovarian, fallopian tube and peritoneal cancers. British Journal of Cancer 105:1818-1824.
Gomathi D, Kalaiselvi M, Ravikumar G, Devaki K, Uma C (2015) GC-MS analysis of bioactive compounds from the whole plant ethanolic extract of Evolvulus alsinoides(L.) L. J Food Sci Technol 52: 1212-1217.
Han, X.; Shen, T.; Lou, (2007) H. Dietary polyphenols and their biological significance. Int. J. Mol. Sci., 8, 950–988.
Huang S, H.lzel M, Knijnenburg T, et al. 2012. MED12 controls the response to multiple cancer drugs through regulation of TGF-beta receptor signaling. Cell 2012; 151:937-50.
Hyeon Soo Kim, Minseok Song, Sanatombi Yumkham, Jang Hyun Choi, Taehoon Lee, Joseph Kwon, Sung Jae Lee, Jong-In Kim, Kang Woo Lee, Pyung-Lim Han, Seung Woo Shin, Ja-Hyun Baik, Yong Sik Kim, Sung Ho Ryu and Pann-Ghill Suh (2006). Identification of a new functional target of haloperidol metabolite: implications for a receptor-independent role of 3-(4-fluorobenzoyl) propionic acid. Journal of neurochemistry 2006-10-13.

Johnson D, Lardy H. Methods Enzymol. 1967;10:94-96.
Lapidus, R. & Sokolove, P. 1992. Inhibition by Spermine of the inner membrane permeability transtion of isolated rat heart mitochondria. FEBS Letter, 3, 314–318.
Lapidus, R.G. and Sokolove, P.M. 1993. Inhibition by spermine of the inner membrane permeability transition of isolated heart mitochondria. FEBS. Lett.3. 314-318.
Lowry, O.H., Rosebrough, N.J., Farr, A.I. and Randall, R.J. 1951. Protein measurements with the folin-phenol reagent. J. Biol.Chem.; 193:260-265
Mukherjee PK, Mukherjee K, Das J , Pal M , Saha BP . 1997. Studies on the anti- inflammatory effects of Drymaria cordata Willd. Natural Product Sciences 63: 367- 69.
Mukherjee, P.K., Bhattacharya, S., Saha, K., Giri, S.N., Pal, M. and Saha, B.P. 1998. Antibacterial Evaluation of Drymaria cordata Willd (Fam. Caryophyllaceae) Extract. Phytotherapy Research, 11, 249-250.
Olorunsogo OO, Malomo SO. 1985. Sensitivity of Oligomycin inhibited respiration of isolated rat liver mitochondriato perfluidone, a fluorinated aryl alkyl sulfonamide. Toxicology. 35(3):231-40.
Olowofolahan A.O and Olorunsogo O.O. 2018. Induction of apoptosis in rat liver cells via caspase activation by chloroform fraction of methanol extract of drymaria cordata 5 (4)
Olowofolahan AO, Aina OO, Hassan ET, Olorunsogo OO. 2017. Ameliorative potentials of methanol extract and chloroform fraction of Drymaria cordata on MSG-induced uterine hyperplasia in female wistar rats. European Journal of Medicinal Plants. 20(4): 1-9
OlowofolahanA.O, Adeoye O.A, Offor G.N, Adebisi L.A and Olorunsogo O.O. 2015. Induction of Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Transition Pore Opening and Cytochrome C Release by Fractions of Drymaria cordata. Arch. Bas. App. Med., 3; 135–144.
Rajeswari G, Murugan M, Mohan VR 2012. GC-MS analysis of bioactive components of Hugonia mystax L (Linaceae). Res J Pharmaceut Biol Chem Sci 3: 301-308.
Russo SJ, Dietz DM, Dumitriu D, Morrison JH, Malenka RC, Nestler EJ. 2010. The addicted synapse: mechanisms of synaptic and structural plasticity in nucleus accumbens. Trends Neurosci. 33:267–276.
Smith, T.J. 2011. Green Tea Polyphenols in drug discovery—A success or failure? Expert Opin. Drug Discov, 6, 589–595.
Sowemimo, A., Van de Venter, M., Baatjies, L. and Koekemoer, T. 2009. Cytotoxic Activity of Selected Nigerian Plants. African Journal of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 6, 526-528.
Telefo, P.B., Lienou, L.L., Yemele, M.D., Lemfack, M.C., Mouokeu, C., Goka, C.S., Tagne S.R. and Moundipa F.P. 2011. Ethnopharmacological Survey of Plants Used for the Treatment of Female Infertility in Baham, Cameroon. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 136, 178-187.
Tsao, R. 2010. Chemistry and biochemistry of dietary polyphenols. Nutrients, 2, 1231–1246.
Vijisaral ED, Subramanian A. 2014. GC-MS analysis of ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus leaves. Int J Curr Biotechnol 2: 19-23.





Basic Science Research