Evaluation of Haematological and Serum Biochemical changes associated with Administration of Combretum sordidum Exell Leaf Extract to Wistar Rats
The acute and sub-chronic toxicity test of the acetone extract of C. sordidum was carried out using changes in hematology and serum biochemistry of male Wistar rats. For acute toxicity study, 25 female adult rats were divided into 5 groups. Group A (Control) were administered with 2ml/kg of distilled water, while rats in groups B to E were administered with the extract of 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 mg/kg body weight respectively. 25 male rats were used for sub-acute toxicity test. The extract was administered at doses of 100, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg body weight respectively, once daily for 14 days to rats in groups B to E. Rats administered with the extract had increased mean PCV, RBC, Hb. MCV, MCH, while MCHC was constant, but the extract at a dose of 800mg/kg caused reduction in MCV and MCH. The higher doses of 400mg/kg and 800mg/kg also caused an increase in ESR, WBC, Neutrophils, Platelets and a decrease in Lymphocytes. The results show the extract induced erythropoiesis at low doses, but inflammatory response at high doses. Serum biochemistry showed an elevation in the TP, Albumin, Globulin, TC, AST and ALT with the higher doses (400mg/kg and 800mg/kg) showing more prominent increment. This confirms the on-going inflammation observed in the haemogram. Specifically, elevation of AST and ALT are strong indicators of liver injury as can be observed in this study. It was concluded that prolonged administration of low dose of C. sordidum extract induces erythropoiesis, but high doses (>400mg/kg) causes liver injury. Therefore, low dose administration of ≤200mg/kg is safer for medicinal purposes
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