Exacerbative Effect of Paullinia pinnata Methanol Leaf Extract on Ethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether-Induced Testicular Dysfunction in Male Wistar Rats

  • Oluwatoyin Adenike Adeyemo-Salami Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan
  • Ebenezer Olatunde Farombi Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan


Paullinia pinnata (PP) is a medicinal plant whose parts are used for medicinal purposes traditionally in the treatment of various diseases including malaria, diarrhea and to help infertility which is currently a scourge globally.

Sixty adult male Wistar rats were weight-matched into six groups of ten animals each. All administrations were done orally daily for twenty-one consecutive days as follows: Group I(control) – distilled water; Group II – 1.5 ml/kg body weight of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (vehicle); Group III- Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) only (200 mg/kg); Group IV- PP only (200 mg/kg); Group V- EGME+PP at 100 mg/kg body weight and Group VI- EGME+PP at 200 mg/kg body weight. On day 22, blood was collected for the analysis of the reproductive hormones. The animals were euthanized and the brain, testes and epididymes were processed and used for spermatozoa analysis, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory assays, and histological examination appropriately.

The plasma concentrations of the reproductive hormones including luteinizing hormone were significantly increased in the co-administered groups while the plasma testosterone concentration was decreased. Similarly, the spermatozoa parameters including testicular spermatozoa number were reduced in the EGME only and co-administered groups. Antioxidant parameters including catalase and glutathione-S-transferase were affected in the epididymis, testes and brain in the EGME only and co-administered groups. The inflamma-tory markers were also elevated. The results were complemented by the histological observations.

Paullinia pinnata leaves lack chemopreventive potential against Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether- induced gonadotoxicity rather, it exacerbates the deleterious effects.

Author Biography

Ebenezer Olatunde Farombi, Department of Biochemistry, University of Ibadan

Prof. Ebenezer Olatunde Farombi is the Corresponding author


Adedara, I.A., and E.O. Farombi. 2010. Induction of oxidative damage in the testes and spermatozoa and hematotoxicity in rats exposed to multiple doses of ethylene glycol monoethyl ether. Hum. Exp. Toxicol. 29: 801- 812.
Adeyemo – Salami, O.A., and J.M. Makinde. 2013. Acute and sub-acute toxicity studies of the methanol extract of the leaves of Paullinia pinnata (Linn.) in Wistar albino mice and rats. Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 42: 81- 90.
Adeyemo-Salami, O.A. and E.O. Farombi. 2018. Sub-acute toxicity study of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether on the antioxidant defense system of the testes and epididymes of Wistar rats. Niger. J. Physiol. Sci. 33(In press).
Adeyemo – Salami, O.A., E.O. Farombi, and O.G. Ademowo. 2014. An investigation into the antimalarial effect of methanolic extract of Paullinia pinnata leaves in Plasmodium berghei infected mice and course of infection. Afr. J. Med. Med. Sci. 43: (Suppl), 93-100.
Agarwal, A., and S.A. Prabakaran. 2005. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in male fertility: a difficult balance. Iran. J. Reprod. Med. 3: 1-8.
Baldo, B.A. 2016. Glycoprotein hormones. In Safety of Biologics Therapy. Springer, Switzerland.
Beckman Coulter. 2013. Thyroid function in humans. http://www.immunotech.cz/ Media/Default/MIB_Info_Lines/Thyroid/Thyroid_Function.pdf (accessed 16. 01.17).
Beutler, E., D.J. Duron, and M.B. Kelly. 1963. Improved method for the determination of blood glutathione. J. Lab. Clin. Med. 61: 882 – 888.
Blazak, W.F., K.A. Trienen, and P.E. Janiewicz. 1993. Application of testicular sperm head counts in the assessment of male reproductive toxicity. In Methods in Toxicology. Male Reproductive Toxicology. R.E. Chapin, J. Hendel, editors. Vol 3A. Academic Press, San Diego.
Boivin, J., L. Bunting, J.A. Collins, and K.G. Nygren. 2007. International estimates of infertility prevalence and treatment – seeking: potential need and demand for infertility medical care. Hum. Reprod. 22: 1506 – 1512.
Bowen, R. 2010. Mechanism of action and physiologic effects of thyroid hormones. http://arbl.cvmbs.colostate.edu/hbooks/pathphys/endocrine/thyroid/physio.html (accessed 05.01.17).
Burkill, H. M. 2000. The useful plants of West Tropical Africa. Families S-Z, Vol. V. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
Claiborne, A., 1985. Catalase activity. In Handbook of Methods for Oxygen Radical Research. R.A. Greenwald, editors. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. 243 – 247.
Green, L.C., D.A. Wagner, J. Glogowski, P.L. Skiper, J.S. Wishnock, and S.R. Tannenbaum. 1982. Analysis of nitrate, nitrite and [15N] nitrate in biological fluids. Anal. Biochem. 126: 131 – 138.
Habig, W.H., M.J. Pabst, and W.B. Jakoby. 1974. Glutathione – S – transferase: The first enzymatic step in mercapturic acid formation. J. Biol. Chem. 249: 7130 – 7139.
Ikhane, D., K. Banwo, O. Omotade, and A. Sanni. 2015. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of methanolic extract of Paullinia pinnata leaves on some selected bacterial pathogens. J. Herbs Spices Med. Plants. 21: 59 – 74.
Jakota, S.K., and H.M. Dani. 1982. A colorimetric technique for the estimation of
vitamin C using folin phenol reagent. Anal. Biochem. 127: 178 – 182.
Jimoh, F.O., M.O. Sofidiya, and A.J. Afolayan. 2007. Antioxidant properties of the methanol extracts from the leaves of Paullinia pinnata. J. Med. Food 10: 707 – 711.
Lobo, V., A. Patil, A. Phatak, N. Chandra. 2010. Free radicals, antioxidants and functional foods: impact on human health. Pharmacogn. Rev. 4: 118- 126.
Lowry, O.H., N.J. Rosenbrough, A.I. Farr, and R.J. Randall. 1951. Protein measurement with folin phenol reagent. J. Biol. Chem. 193: 265.
21. Malik, T., G.D. Gupta. 2013. Effects of ethylene glycol monomethyl ether on testicular antioxidant system in adult rats. Res. Rev. J. Toxicol. 3: 1 – 6.
22. Misra, H.P., I. Fridovich. 1972. The role of superoxide anion in the autooxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay for superoxide dismutase. J. Biol. Chem. 247: 3170 – 3175.
O’Shaughnessy, P.J., A. Monterio, G. Verhoeran, K. De Gendt, and M.H. Abel. 2010. Effect of FSH on testicular morphology and spermatogenesis in gonadotrophin-deficient hypogonadal mice lacking androgen receptors. Reproduction. 139: 177-184.
Osarenmwinda, I.P., J.O. Omonkhelin, and D. Ejiro. 2009. Anti- diarrhoeal activity of the methanolic extract of the leaves of Paullinia pinnata Linn. (Sapindaceae). Internet J. Health. Vol. 9, DOI: 10.5580/10d7.
Pant, N., S.P. Svivastava. 2003. Testicular and spermatotoxic effects of quinophosin rats. J. Appl. Toxicol. 23: 271 – 274.
Parker, R.M., and R.G. York. 2014. Hormone assays and endocrine function. In Hayes’ Principles and methods of Toxicology. A.W. Hayes, C.L. Kruger, editors. CRC Press, Boca Raton. 1774.
Pham-Huy, L.A., H. He, and C. Pham-Huy. 2008. Free radicals, antioxidants in disease and health. Int. J. Biomed. Sci. 4: 89- 96.
Rahman, K. 2007. Studies on free radicals, antioxidants and co-factors. Clin. Interv. aging 2: 219- 236.
Rotruck, J.T., A.L. Pope, H.E. Ganther, A.B. Swanson, D.G. Hafeman, and W.G. Hoekstra. 1973. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science. 179: 588 – 590.
Sikka, S.C., and R.K. Naz. 2002. Endocrine Toxicology: Male reproduction. In Handbook of Toxicology. M.J. Derelanko, M.A. Hollinger, editors. Second edition. CRC press, Boca Raton, Florida. 545– 570.
Tamokou, J. de D., J.R. Chouna, E. Fischer- Fodor, G. Cherechas, O. Barbos, G. Damian, D. Benedec, M. Duma, A.P.N. Efouet, H.K. Wabo, J.R. Kuiate, A. Mot, and R. Silaghi-Dumitrescu. 2013. Anticancer and antimicrobial activities of some antioxidant-rich Cameroonian medicinal plants. PLoS One 8: e55880. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055880.
Trush, M.A., P.A. Egner, and T.W. Kensler.1994. Myeloperoxidase as a biomarker of skin irritation and inflammation. Food Chem. Toxicol. 32: 143 – 147.
Varshney, R., and R.K. Kale. 1990. Effects of calmodulin antagonists on radiation – induced lipid peroxidation in microsomes. Int. J. Radiat. Biol. 58: 733 – 743.
Vassault, A. 1983. Lactate dehydrogenase. UV – method with pyruvate and NADH. In Methods of Enzymatic Analysis. H.U. Bergmeyer, editor. Third edition. Plenum, New York. 118 – 125.
Wells, M.E., and O.A. Awa. 1970. New technique for assessing acrosomal characteristics of spermatozoa. J. Dairy Sci. 53: 227.
Zamble, A.M.S., M. Carpentier, A. Kandoussi, S. Sahpaz, O. Petrault, T. Onk, N. Hennuyer, J. Fruchart, B. Staels, R. Bordet, P. Duriez, F. Bailleul, F. Martin – Nizard. 2006. Paullinia pinnata extracts rich in polyphenols promote vascular relaxation via endothelium-dependent mechanisms. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. 47: 599-608.
Zemjanis, R. 1970. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Technique in Animal reproduction. Second edition. Waverly Press, Baltimore.
Carcinogenesis/Oncology/Chemoprevention/Toxicology/Biomarkers/Oxidative Stress