Assessment of In-vitro Antioxidant Activities and Genotoxicity in E. coli of Ethanol Extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa (Gaertn. F)
Medicinal plants grossly contain bioactive phytochemicals. Phytochemical such as polyphenols, flavonoids, saponins, vitamin C, E have antioxidant potentials; they therefore act as protecting agent when used in the right perspective. The objective of this study is to evaluate the in vitro antioxidant and genotoxic properties of ethanol extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa. To achieve this, five antioxidant assays were used whereas SOS chromotest was used for the assessment of genotoxicity. Using ascorbic acid as a standard, the leaf extract had a 1.4 fold higher level total antioxidant capacity when compared to seed. At 800µg/ml, the leaf extract compared well to the standard in reducing power capacity but the seed was lower significantly. However a lower % inhibition capacity was observed for both extracts when compared to ascorbic acid for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay. Total phenolic content was (83.46 ± 0.72 and 68.88 ± 7.50) µgGAE/ml for leaf and seed extracts respectively. The leaf extract total flavonoid content was significantly higher in comparison to the seed using quercetin as a standard compound. The genotoxic assay SOS chromotest showed both extracts to be non-genotoxic at concentrations < 800µg/ml in comparison to 4-Nitroquinoline-1- oxide (4-NQO). However at 800µg/ml the extracts showed marginal genotoxicity. Findings from this study showed both extracts of Vitellaria paradoxa have antioxidant properties. The leaf extract showed a more promising antioxidant potential and high level of flavonoid. The marginal genotoxicity observed at 800µg/ml calls for caution on the medicinal application of the plant.
Key words: Antioxidant, genotoxicity, medicinal plants, Vitellaria paradoxa
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