Pattern of Oral Health among a Population of Pregnant Women in South-western Nigeria
Oral health in pregnancy is important to the health of the pregnant woman; and good oral health plays a role in the outcome of pregnancy. However, many pregnant women and healthcare providers are either unaware of this or accord this less attention. The study was designed to describe pattern of oral health among a cohort of pregnant women. Eighty-one pregnant women attending antenatal care at a secondary healthcare facility were evaluated in third trimester following written informed consent. Each participant had a structured data collection form administered and clinical examination conducted. Information on sociodemographic characteristics, dental and obstetric history and examination were obtained. Dental assessment involved the use of the oral hygiene, gingival, periodontal and caries indices. The data collected was entered and analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 20. The mean age of the participants was 29.90 (±4.38) years and all women were in the third trimester of pregnancy. Only 6.5% of the participants had dental complaints, 26.0% brushed twice a day and 96.1% ever had dental health check in the past. A good oral hygiene score was found in 40% of participants; 6.5% and 10.4% had a healthy periodontal and gingival status respectively and only 8 (10.4%) had caries. Less than half of the pregnant women had good oral health status. The antenatal care period maybe an opportunity to identify oral diseases; counsel and introduce positive oral health behaviours and enhance improved personal oral hygiene
Al-Swuailem, A. S., Al-Jamal, F. S. and Helmi, M. F. (2014) ‘Treatment perception and utilization of dental services during pregnancy among sampled women in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia’, Saudi Journal for Dental Research, 5(2). doi: 10.1016/j.ksujds.2013.11.002.
Azofeifa, A., Yeung, L. F., Alverson, C. J. and Beltrán-Aguilar, E. (2014) ‘Oral Health Conditions and Dental Visits Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age in the United States, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999–2004’, Preventing Chronic Disease, 11. doi: 10.5888/pcd11.140212.
Carrillo-De-Albornoz, A., Figuero, E., Herrera, D., Cuesta, P. and Bascones-Martínez, A. (2012) ‘Gingival changes during pregnancy: III. Impact of clinical, microbiological, immunological and socio-demographic factors on gingival inflammation’, Journal of Clinical Periodontology, 39(3), pp. 272–283. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2011.01800.x.
Chaloupka, P., Korecko, V., Turek, J. and Merglova, V. (2014) ‘[Oral health status of women with normal and high-risk pregnancies].’, Ceska gynekologie / Ceska lekarska spolecnost J. Ev. Purkyne, 79(1), pp. 29–33.
Greene, J. C. (1967) ‘The oral hygiene index—development and uses’, Journal of Periodontology, 38(6 Part II), pp. 625–635. doi: 10.1902/jop.1967.38.6_part2.625.
Greene, J. and JR, V. (1964) ‘The Simplified Oral Hygiene Index’, The Journal of the American Dental Association, 68(1), pp. 7–13. doi: 10.14219/jada.archive.1964.0034.
Gursoy, M., Gursoy, U. K., Sorsa, T., Pajukanta, R. and Kononen, E. (2013) ‘High Salivary Estrogen and Risk of Developing Pregnancy Gingivitis’, Journal of Periodontology, 84(9), pp. 1281–1289. doi: 10.1902/jop.2012.120512.
Gürsoy, M., Pajukanta, R., Sorsa, T. and Könönen, E. (2008) ‘Clinical changes in periodontium during pregnancy and post-partum’, Journal of Clinical Periodontology. Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 35(7), pp. 576–583. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2008.01236.x.
Harris Janice (2017) ‘The Forgotten System During Pregnancy: Women and Oral Health’, International Journal of Childbirth Education, 32(1), pp. 1–50.
Hope, C. K., Wang, Q., Burnside, G., Adeyemi, A. A., Quenby, S., Smith, P. W., Higham, S. M. and Whitworth, M. (2014) ‘Assessing the association between oral hygiene and preterm birth by quantitative light-induced fluorescence’, The Scientific World Journal, 2014. doi: 10.1155/2014/374694.
Hullah, E., Turok, Y., Nauta, M. and Yoong, W. (2008) ‘Self-reported oral hygiene habits, dental attendance and attitudes to dentistry during pregnancy in a sample of immigrant women in North London’, Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Springer-Verlag, 277(5), pp. 405–409. doi: 10.1007/s00404-007-0480-8.
Ifenne, D. I. and Utoo, B. T. (2012) ‘Gestational age at booking for antenatal care in a tertiary health facility in north-central, Nigeria.’, Nigerian medical journal : journal of the Nigeria Medical Association. Medknow Publications, 53(4), pp. 236–9. doi: 10.4103/0300-1652.107602.
Jain, K. and Kaur, H. (2015) ‘Prevalence of oral lesions and measurement of salivary pH in the different trimesters of pregnancy’, Singapore Medical Journal, 56(1), pp. 53–57. doi: 10.11622/smedj.2015010.
Karama, M. and Nuaimy, A. (2003) ‘Pregnancy – related changes in oral health and human unstimulated whole saliva’, Al-Rafidain Dent J, 3(2), pp. 108–115. Available at: https://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=pregnancy+related+changes+in+oral+health+and+human+unstimulated+whole+saliva&btnG=&as_sdt=1%2C5&as_sdtp= (Accessed: 26 April 2017).
Laine, M. A. (2002) ‘Effect of pregnancy on periodontal and dental health.’, Acta odontologica Scandinavica, 60(5), pp. 257–64. doi: 10.1080/00016350260248210.
Lasisi, T. J. and Ugwuadu, P. N. (2014) ‘Pregnancy related changes in human salivary secretion and composition in a Nigerian population.’, African journal of medicine and medical sciences, 43(4), pp. 347–51. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26234123 (Accessed: 25 April 2017).
Marthaler, T., Menghini, G. and Steiner, M. (2005) ‘Use of the significant caries index in quantifying the changes in caries in Switzerland from 1964 to 2000’, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 33(3), pp. 159–166. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2005.00196.x.
Mehta, A. (2012) ‘Comprehensive review of caries assessment systems developed over the last decade’, Jul-Sep, 99(33), pp. 316–21. doi: 1984-5685.
Nakai, Y., Mori, Y. and Tamaoka, I. (2016) ‘Antenatal Health Care and Postnatal Dental Check-Ups Prevent Early Childhood Caries’, Tohoku J. Exp. Med. Tohoku J. Exp. Med, 240(2404), pp. 303–308. doi: 10.1620/tjem.240.303.
Naveen, S., Asha, M. L., Shubha, G., Bajoria, A. and Jose, A. (2014) ‘Salivary Flow Rate, pH and Buffering Capacity in Pregnant and Non Pregnant Women - A Comparative Study’, JMED Research, 2014, pp. 1–8. doi: 10.5171/2014.506946.
Nuamah, I. and Annan, B. D. (1998) ‘Periodontal status and oral hygiene practices of pregnant and non-pregnant women’, East Afr Med J, 75(12), pp. 712–714. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10065212 (Accessed: 25 April 2017).
Petersen, P. E. (2003) ‘World Health Organization: The World Oral Health Report 2003: continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century - the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme.’, Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology, 31(1), pp. 3–24. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/68506/1/WHO_NMH_NPH_ORH_03.2.pdf (Accessed: 3 July 2017).
Podshadley, A. G. and Haley, J. V (1968) ‘A method for evaluating oral hygiene performance.’, Public health reports, 83(3), p. 259. Available at: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1891029/pdf/pubhealthreporig00003-0091.pdf (Accessed: 26 April 2017).
Ramfjord, S. P. (1967) ‘The periodontal disease index (PDI)’, Journal of Periodontology, 38(6), pp. 602–610. doi: 10.1902/jop.19220.127.116.112.
Reza Karimi, M., Hamissi, J. H., Naeini, S. R. and Karimi, M. (2015) ‘The Relationship Between Maternal Periodontal Status of and Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants in Iran: A Case Control Study’, Global Journal of Health Science. Canadian Center of Science and Education, 8(5), p. 184. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v8n5p184.
Salvolini, E., Di Giorgio, R., Curatola, a, Mazzanti, L. and Fratto, G. (1998) ‘Biochemical modifications of human whole saliva induced by pregnancy.’, British journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 105(6), pp. 656–60. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9647157.
Samant, A., Malik, C. P., Chabra, S. K. and Devi, P. K. (1976) ‘Gingivitis and Periodontal Disease in Pregnancy’, Journal of Periodontology, 47(7), pp. 415–418. doi: 10.1902/jop.1918.104.22.1685.
Silk, Hugh; Douglass, Alan B.; Douglass, Joanna M.; Silk, L. (2008) ‘Oral Health During Pregnancy’, American Family Physician, 77(8), p. 113.
Tilakaratne, A., Soory, M., Ranasinghe, A. W., Corea, S. M., Ekanayake, S. L. and de Silva, M. (2000) ‘Periodontal disease status during pregnancy and 3 months post-partum, in a rural population of Sri-Lankan women.’, Journal of clinical periodontology, 27(10), pp. 787–792. doi: 10.1034/j.1600-051x.2000.027010787.x.
World Health Organization, D. of R. H. and R. (2001) WHO Antenatal Care Randomized Trial: Manual for the Implementation of the New Model. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/42513/1/WHO_RHR_01.30.pdf.
Wu, M., Chen, S. W. and Jiang, S. Y. (2015) ‘Relationship between gingival inflammation and pregnancy’, Mediators of Inflammation. doi: 10.1155/2015/623427.
Zaki, K., el Hak, R., Amer, W., Saleh, F., El Faras, A., Ragab, L. and Nour, H. (1984) ‘Salivary female sex hormone levels and gingivitis in pregnancy.’, Biomedica biochimica acta, 43(6), pp. 749–54. Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6487290 (Accessed: 2 July 2017).